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Table 1 Articles selected: results of combined ACL and ALL reconstruction. LOE level of evidence, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Scale

From: Clinical outcomes of combined anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study LOE/NOS N Age Indication Technique Preoperation Postoperation Preoperation Postoperation Return-to-sport rate
Goncharov et al. (2019) [23] II/8 18   Professional sport activities or participation in competitions; age between 16 and 40 years ACL: patellar
ALL: hamstring
Lachman test: 18
Pivot shift: 18
24 months
Lachman test: 0
Pivot shift: 0
IKDC score: 63.1 ± 4.8
Lysholm score: 72.6 ± 6.45
24 months
IKDC score: 96.3 ± 1.8
Lysholm score: 97.4 ± 1.18
100%
Helito et al. (2019) [25] III/6 30 27.0 ± 9.1 Laxity based on the modified Beighton scale [45] with a minimum value of 5–8 ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Pivot shift: 30
Rolimeter arthrometer: 7.7 ± 1.3 mm
Beighton scale: 6.1 ± 1.1
28.1 ± 4.2 months
Pivot shift: 8
Rolimeter arthrometer: 1.5 ± 1.1 mm
  28.1 ± 4.2 months
IKDC score: 86.9 ± 9.3
Lysholm score: 88.3 ± 7.3
Rerupture: 1
 
Ibrahim et al. (2017) [20] I 53 26 (20–32) At least two of the following criteria: grade 2/3 pivot shift; competitive sport; pivoting sport; chronic ACL injury; Segond fracture ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Pivot shift: 53
Lachman test: 53
KT-1000 arthrometer: 9.0 ± 3.0
27 months
Pivot shift: 5
Lachman test: 4
KT-1000 arthrometer: 1.3 ± 0.2
Lysholm score: 75.0 ± 15.0
Tegner score: 6.0 ± 2.0
27 months
Lysholm score: 98.0 ± 5.0
Tegner score: 8.0 ± 1.0
 
Sonnery-Cottet et al. (2018) [26] III/8 189 23.8 ± 6.8 At least two of the following criteria: grade 3 pivot shift; competitive sport; pivoting sport; chronic ACL injury; Segond fracture; lateral femoral notch sign; age up to 25 years ACL: hamstring or
patellar
ALL: gracilis
    36.6 ± 8.2 months
Lysholm score: 93.7
Tegner score: 7.2
61.2%
Helito et al. (2018) [27] III/7 33 33.1 ± 8.8 Simple ACL rupture more than 1 year before ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Pivot shift: 33
KT-1000 arthrometer: 8.39 ± 1.1
25 (24–28) months
Pivot shift: 3
KT-1000 arthrometer: 1 (1–2) mm
  25 (24–28) months
IKDC score: 92.7 ± 5.9
Lysholm score: 95.4 ± 5.3
Rerupture: 0
 
Sonnery-Cottet et al. (2017) [24] II/7 221 21.8 ± 4.0 ACL rupture in young people + pivoting sport ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Side-to-side laxity: 7.5 ± 1.6 35.4 ± 8.4 months
Side-to-side laxity: 0.5 ± 0.8
IKDC score: 57.2 ± 20.2 35.4 ± 8.4 months
IKDC score: 81.8 ± 13.1
Lysholm score: 91.9 ± 10.2
Tegner score: 7.0 ± 2.0
Rerupture rate: 4.13%
68.8%
Yoon et al. (2020) [28] III/6 18 32.9 ± 10.8 Revision ACL + grade 2 or 3 pivot shift ACL and ALL: allograft Anterior drawer: 17
Pivot shift: 18
Lachman test: 18
Side-to-side difference.: 7.7 ± 2.9
2 years
Anterior drawer: 10
Pivot shift: 8
Lachman test: 12
Side-to-side difference.: 3.9 ± 3.0
IKDC score: 46.3 ± 11.2
Lysholm score: 51.6 ± 13.5
Tegner score: 2.9 ± 0.8
2 years
IKDC score: 57.8 ± 15.7
Lysholm score: 58.7 ± 16.1
Tegner score: 4.0 ± 1.7
Rerupture: 2
 
Hamido et al. (2020) [21] I 50 24 (18–33) ACL rupture in athletes + pivot shift ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Pivot shift: 50
KT-1000 arthrometer: 11.5 ± 0.8
60 (55–65) months
Anterior drawer: 3
Pivot shift: 2
Lachman test: 2
KT-1000 arthrometer: 1.2 ± 0.7
Lysholm score: 72 ± 13.5
Tegner score: 6.4 ± 1.2
60 (55–65) months
Lysholm score: 96 ± 5.0
Tegner score: 7.9 ± 0.8
Rerupture: 0
100%
Abdelrazek et al. (2019) [22] I 20 24.9 ± 7.2 Chronic ACL rupture or grade 3 pivot shift ACL: hamstring
ALL: gracilis
Pivot shift: 20
Lachman test: 20
2 years
Pivot shift: 2
Lachman test: 5
Internal tibial rotation angle side-to-side difference: 2.0 ± 1.17
KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference: 1.1 ± 0.8
   
Lee et al. (2019) [29] III/6 42 26.8 ± 6 Revision ACL and age up to 45 years ACL: anterior tibial allograft
ALL: gracilis allograft
Pivot shift: 42
Lachman test: 42
KT-2000 arthrometer: 9.8 ± 1.7
Pivot shift: 4
Lachman test: 3
KT-2000 arthrometer: 1.9 ± 1.3
IKDC score: 68.7 ± 17.3
Lysholm score: 74.4 ± 16.1
Tegner score: 5.4 ± 0.8
IKDC score: 79.2 ± 18.8
Lysholm score: 88.5 ± 16.9
Tegner score: 6.7 ± 0.7
57.1%