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Table 2 Quality assessment of included studies for meta-analysis

From: A systematic review comparing the results of early vs delayed ligament surgeries in single anterior cruciate ligament and multiligament knee injuries

Study name Design Total no. of patients Reporting (11) External validity Internal validity: bias Internal validity: confounding (selection bias) Power Total
Isolated ACL injury
 Chen et al., 2015 [14, 46] Retrospective study 293 5 1 3 3 5 17
 Tandogan et al., 2004 [48] Retrospective study 764 6 1 3 2 5 17
 Manandhar et al., 2018 [40] Prospective cohort study 104 9 1 5 3 5 23
 Meighan et al., 2003 [42] Retrospective study 31 7 1 3 3 2 16
 Nikolic et al., 1998 [41] Retrospective study 182 7 1 3 2 5 18
 Raviraj et al., 2010 [25] Retrospective study 99 8 1 3 3 4 19
 Hur et al., 2017 [38] Prospective study 91 8 1 3 4 5 21
 Li et al., 2012 [39] Retrospective study 38 7 1 3 3 4 18
 Ahlen and Liden et al., 2011 [43] Prospective cohort study 61 8 1 3 3 5 20
 Bottoni et al., 2008 [47] Prospective, randomized study 70 10 1 4 6 4 25
 Chen et al., 2015 [14, 46] Prospective, randomized study 55 8 1 4 4 3 20
 Cipolla et al., 1995 [16] Retrospective study 1103 3 1 2 2 5 13
 Frobell et al., 2010 [45] Prospective cohort study 121 10 1 5 4 5 25
 Frobell et al., 2013 [44] Prospective cohort study 121 10 1 5 4 5 25
 Herbst et al., 2017 [23] Prospective cohort study 160 8 1 5 3 5 22
 Fok et al., 2013 [37] Retrospective comparative study 150 10 1 3 2 4 20
Multiligament injuries
 Krych et al., 2015 [58] Retrospective study 122 3 1 3 3 5 15
 Tardy et al., 2017 [56] Retrospective study 39 4 1 3 3 2 13
 Moatshe et al., 2017 [59] Prospective cohort study 65 9 1 4 3 4 21
 Li et al., 2013 [51] Retrospective study 15 4 1 3 3 0 11
 Liow et al., 2003 [8] Retrospective study 22 5 1 3 3 1 13
 Subbiah et al., 2011 [50] Retrospective study 19 7 1 3 2 0 13
 Zhang et al., 2013 [52] Retrospective study 59 7 1 3 2 3 16
 Tzurbakis et al., 2006 [10] Retrospective study 48 5 1 2 0 3 11
 Noyes, et al., 1997 [57] Retrospective study 11 3 1 2 0 0 6
 Harner et al., 2004 [9] Retrospective study 31 9 1 3 3 2 18
 Owens et al., 2007 [54] Retrospective study 28 4 1 2 0 1 8
 Wascher et al., 1999 [49] Retrospective study 13 5 1 2 0 0 8
 Fanelli et al., 1996 [55] Retrospective study 21 3 0 1 0 1 5
 Wajsfisz et al., 2014 [53] Retrospective study 53 4 0 0 0 0 4