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Table 3 Proposed minimal clinical important difference (MCID) values after total knee arthroplasty

From: Minimal clinically important difference of commonly used patient-reported outcome measures in total knee arthroplasty: review of terminologies, methods and proposed values

TestCitationFollow-upSubsetMethodValueVariability (if reported)Measurement error (if reported)
WOMACQuintana et al., 2006 [16]6 monthsPainMean change22.6 22.9
Function 17.7 12.7
Stiffness 12.9 29.1
Escobar et al., 2007 [14]2 yearsOverallMean change15.0  
Pain 27.9 22.4
Function 20.8 13.1
Stiffness 21.4 29.1
Chesworth et al., 2008 [13]1 yearPainROC36.0  
Function 33.0  
Escobar et al., 2013 [17]1 yearPainGlobal30.0 8.6
Mean change29.927.1 to 32.6 
ROC20.520.2 to 20.9 
Additional anchors27.0  
FunctionGlobal32.0 5.1
Mean change31.128.3 to 33.9 
ROC24.223.6 to 24.7 
Additional anchors20.0  
Escobar et al., 2014 [15]1 yearPainMean change29.027.0 to 31.1 
Function 32.430.5 to 34.2 
Maratt et al., 2015 [12]2 yearsPainROC31.3  
Function 26.9  
Stiffness 25.0  
OKSClement et al., 2014 [18]1 yearPainRegression analysis5.04.4 to 5.5 
Function 4.33.8 to 4.8 
Kiran et al., 2014 [19]6 monthsOverall0.5 SD4.9  
Kiran et al., 2015 [27]2 yearsOverall0.5 SD4.7 at 1 year and 5.0 at 2 years  
Beard et al., 2015 [28]6 monthsOverallMean change9.0 4.0
 Mean difference5.0  
 ROC7.0  
Bin Abd Razak et al., 2016 [20]5 yearsOverall0.5 SD5.0  
OKSIngelsrud et al., 2018 [29]1 yearOverallMean change10.08.0 to 11.0 
ROC9.06.0 to 15.0 
Regression analysis8.06.0 to 9.0 
KSSLee et al., 2017 [21]2 yearsKnee scoreRegression analysis5.93.9 to 7.8 
Function score 6.44.4 to 8.4 
Lizaur-Utrilla et al., 2019 [23]2 yearsKnee scoreMean difference7.25.1 to 7.8 
ROC8.9  
0.5 SD7.25.3 to 9.0 
  Function scoreMean difference9.77.3 to 10.2 
ROC10.3  
0.5 SD6.35.0 to 8.1 
SF-36Quintana et al., 2006 [16]6 monthsPhysical functioningMean change10.4 20.2
Role physical 7.8 28.7
Bodily pain 12.8 42.3
General health 0.1 27.0
Vitality 5.4 29.7
Social functioning 8.8 42.1
Role emotional 2.4 28.1
Mental health 0.8 23.9
Escobar et al., 2007 [14]2 yearsGlobalMean change10.0  
Physical functioning 11.15.8 to 16.319.5
Role physical 13.23.5 to 22.826.9
Bodily pain 6.7− 0.4 to 13.837.9
General health − 7.3− 11.3 to − 3.327.4
Vitality 3.4− 2.2 to 9.141.2
Social functioning 6.2− 1.7 to 14.028.5
Role emotional 2.4− 9.2 to 14.129.8
Mental health 4.0− 1.7 to 9.724.2
Keurentjes et al., 2014 [26]1.5 to 6 yearsPhysical functioning0.8 SD16.715.5 to 18 
Role physical 33.431.2 to 36 
Bodily pain 16.215.1 to 17.5 
General health 15.714.7 to 16.9 
Vitality 16.715.6 to 18.0 
Social functioning 19.918.6 to 21.5 
Role emotional 33.331.3 to 36.2 
Mental health 14.113.2 to 15.2 
Bin Abd Razak et al., 2016 [20]5 yearsPCS0.5 SD10.0  
SF-12Clement et al., 2014 [18]1 yearPCSRegression analysis4.5 (Pain relief)3.9 to 5.2 
4.8 (Function)4.2 to 5.4 
Berliner, et al., 2017 [22]1 yearPCS0.5 SD5.0  
Blevins et al., 2019 [24]2 yearsPCS0.5 SD5.0  
MCS 5.4  
Clement et al., 2019 [25]1 yearPCSMean difference1.8  
ROC2.7  
MCSMean difference1.5  
ROC−1.4  
Clement et al., 2014 [18]1 yearPCSRegression analysis4.5 (Pain relief)3.9 to 5.2 
Berliner, et al., 2017 [22]   4.8 (Function)4.2 to 5.4 
 1 yearPCS0.5 SD5.0  
Blevins et al., 2019 [24]2 yearsPCS0.5 SD5.0  
MCS 5.4  
Clement et al., 2014 [18]1 yearPCSRegression analysis4.5 (Pain relief)3.9 to 5.2 
Berliner, et al., 2017 [22]1 yearPCS0.5 SD4.8 (Function)4.2 to 5.4 
  1. MCID minimal clinically important difference, TKA total knee arthroplasty, PROM patient-reported outcome measures, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index, WOMAC* Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index reversed scoring system, OKS Oxford Knee Score, KSS Knee Society Score, SF-36 36-item Short Form survey, SF-12 12-item Short Form Survey, ROC receiver operator characteristics, 0.5 SD half of a standard deviation, 0.8 SD four fifths of a standard deviation