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Table 4 Subgroup analysis—improvement ∆ comparison between the subgroups

From: Botulinum toxin injections as salvage therapy is beneficial for management of patellofemoral pain syndrome

  Subgroups Lysholm Kujala NRS SF-6
Age group  < 60 years 30.5 ± 19.0 27.2 ± 18.3 −4.5 ± 3.0 0.2 ± 0.2
   ≥ 60 years 22.5 ± 15.5 18.9 ± 14.4 −4.2 ± 3.2 0.1 ± 0.1
  P* 0.17 0.183 0.76 0.071
Gender Male 31.0 ± 22.9 28.7 ± 21.3 −4.1 ± 3.1 0.2 ± 0.2
Female 25.3 ± 15.1 21.4 ± 14.6 −4.5 ± 3.1 0.1 ± 0.1
P* 0.574 0.268 0.753 0.297
Osteoarthritis Yes 22.8 ± 14.6 19.8 ± 14.5 −4.3 ± 3.0 0.1 ± 0.1
No 33.2 ± 20.6 29.3 ± 19.3 −4.5 ± 3.2 0.2 ± 0.1
P* 0.097 0.128 0.871 0.153
Physiotherapy Yes 27.8 ± 18.1 23.8 ± 16.8 −4.4 ± 2.9 0.1 ± 0.1
No 24.4 ± 18.0 23.5 ± 19.5 −4.2 ± 3.8 0.2 ± 0.1
P* 0.827 0.975 0.869 0.854
  1. ∆ Data represent the differences between the post- and pre-intervention scores. Values are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. P* the p-value of the subgroup comparison within each group. Refers to the independent sample t-test (normal distribution) or independent sample Mann–Whitney U test (skewed distribution)