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Table 3 Subgroup analysis—the intervention effectiveness in each group

From: Botulinum toxin injections as salvage therapy is beneficial for management of patellofemoral pain syndrome

Questionnaire Age group Gender Osteoarthritis Physiotherapy
   < 60 years  ≥ 60 years Male Female Yes No Yes No
  (n = 18) (n = 13) (n = 10) (n = 21) (n = 18) (n = 13) (n = 25) (n = 6)
Lysholm
Pre 56.4 ± 16.9 61.5 ± 10.4 58.7 ± 17.6 55.0 ± 14.0 57.9 ± 12.9 53.8 ± 17.8 54.9 ± 14.5 61.6 ± 17.3
Post 82.6 ± 18.8 84.0 ± 13.4 89.8 ± 11.5 80.1 ± 17.9 80.7 ± 19.1 86.7 ± 12.1 82.5 ± 17.0 86.0 ± 15.8
P** < 0.001 0.004 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.021
Kujala
Pre 55.3 ± 12.9 63.9 ± 10.9 62.0 ± 16.0 57.5 ± 10.8 61.5 ± 12.0 55.3 ± 13.1 57.6 ± 12.1 64.6 ± 14.5
Post 82.3 ± 17.0 83.2 ± 13.0 90.3 ± 11.2 79.1 ± 15.8 81.6 ± 16.5 84.2 ± 13.7 81.4 ± 15.0 88.2 ± 16.5
P** < 0.001 < 0.001 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.032
NRS
Pre 7.7 ± 1.6 7.4 ± 2.5 6.9 ± 1.7 7.9 ± 2.1 7.9 ± 2.1 7.2 ± 1.9 7.7 ± 2.1 7.2 ± 1.5
Post 3.2 ± 3.1 3.2 ± 2.9 2.8 ± 3.0 3.4 ± 3.0 3.6 ± 3.1 2.7 ± 2.8 3.3 ± 3.1 3.0 ± 2.8
P** < 0.001 0.001 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.042
SF-6
Pre 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2
Post 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1
P** < 0.001 0.019 0.02 < 0.001 0.005 0.001 < 0.001 0.171
  1. All data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. P**- p-value of the comparison inside each subgroup. Refers to the Paired samples t-test (normal distribution) or related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test (skewed distribution)