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Table 2 Articles selected: results of control groups (isolated ACL reconstruction)

From: Clinical outcomes of combined anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study LOE/NOS Control (N) Age Indication Preoperation Postoperation Preoperation Postoperation Return-to-sport rate
Goncharov et al. (2019) [23] II/8 30   Professional sport activities or participation in competitions; age between 16 and 40 years Lachman test: 30
Pivot shift: 30
24 months
Lachman test: 13
Pivot shift: 11
IKDC score: 73.4 ± 3.206
Lysholm score: 69.6 ± 3.51
24 months
IKDC score: 90.3 ± 3.73
Lysholm score: 92.1 ± 3.935
66.7%
Helito et al. (2019) [25] III/6 60 29.9 ± 8.1 Laxity based on the modified Beighton scale [45] with a minimum value of 5–8 Pivot shift: 60
Rolimeter arthrometer: 7.4 ± 1.2 mm
Beighton scale: 5.8 ± 0.9
29.6 ± 6.2 months
Pivot shift: 31
Rolimeter arthrometer: 2.3 ± 1.4 mm
  29.6 ± 6.2 months
IKDC score: 84.3 ± 9.8
Lysholm score: 86.3 ± 7.8
Rerupture: 13
 
Ibrahim et al. (2017) [20] I 50 26 (20–32) At least two of the following criteria: grade 2/3 pivot shift; competitive sport; pivoting sport; chronic ACL injury; Segond fracture Pivot shift: 50
Lachman test: 50
KT-1000 arthrometer: 8.1 ± 3.2
27 months
Pivot shift: 6
Lachman test: 5
KT-1000 arthrometer: 1.8 ± 0.8
Lysholm score: 72.0 ± 13.5
Tegner score: 6.0 ± 2.0
27 months
Lysholm score: 96.0 ± 3.5
Tegner score: 8.0 ± 1.0
 
Sonnery-Cottet et al. (2018) [26] III/8 194 30.9 ± 9.9 At least two of the following criteria: grade 3 pivot shift; competitive sport; pivoting sport; chronic ACL injury; Segond fracture; lateral femoral notch sign; age up to 25 years     39.2 ± 9.4 months
Lysholm score: 93.0
Tegner score: 6.5
63.0%
Helito et al. (2018) [27] III/7 68 33.9 ± 6.1 Simple ACL rupture more than 1 year before Pivot shift: 68
KT-1000 arthrometer: 8.25 ± 1.1
26 (24–29) months
Pivot shift: 24
KT-1000 arthrometer: 2 (1–2) mm
  26 (24–29) months
IKDC score: 87.1 ± 13
Lysholm score: 91 ± 2.3
Rerupture: 5
 
Sonnery-Cottet et al. (2017) [24] II/7 Patellar: 105
Hamstring: 176
Patellar: 22.1 ± 3.7
Hamstring: 23.5 ± 4.0
ACL rupture in young people + pivoting sport Patellar:
Side-to-side laxity: 7.6 ± 1.6
Hamstring:
Side-to-side laxity: 7.4 ± 1.5
Patellar:
39.2 ± 8.8 months
Side-to-side laxity: 0.6 ± 0.9
Hamstring:
41.6 ± 7.0 months
Side-to-side laxity: 0.6 ± 1.0
Patellar:
IKDC score: 56.5 ± 15.8
Hamstring:
IKDC score: 59.4 ± 16.3
Patellar:
39.2 ± 8.8 months
IKDC score: 86.8 ± 10.5
Lysholm score: 92.4 ± 8.6
Tegner score: 7.4 ± 2.1
Rerupture rate: 16.77%
Hamstring:
41.6 ± 7.0 months
IKDC score: 85.4 ± 10.4
Lysholm score: 91.3 ± 9.9
Tegner score: 6.6 ± 1.8
Rerupture rate: 10.77%
Patellar: 63.5%
Hamstring: 59.9%
Yoon et al. (2020) [28] III / 6 21 29.6 ± 10.2 Revision ACL + grade 2 or 3 pivot shift Anterior drawer: 21
Pivot shift: 21
Lachman test: 21
Side-to-side difference: 8.0 ± 3.6
2 years
Anterior drawer: 17
Pivot shift: 18
Lachman test: 21
Side-to-side difference: 5.9 ± 2.8
IKDC score: 46.8 ± 19.4
Lysholm score:48.4 ± 25.3
Tegner score: 3.5 ± 2.1
2 years
IKDC score: 56.4 ± 20.7
Lysholm score:62.0 ± 21.3
Tegner score: 4.0 ± 2.7
Rerupture: 3
 
Hamido et al. (2020) [21] I 52 26 (18–40) ACL rupture in athletes + pivot shift Pivot shift: 52
KT-1000 arthrometer: 10.2 ± 0.8
60 (55–65) months
Anterior drawer: 7
Pivot shift: 9
Lachman test: 8
KT-1000 arthrometer: 2.5 ± 0.7
Lysholm score: 74 ± 14.5
Tegner score: 6.9 ± 1.6
60 (55–65) months
Lysholm score: 94 ± 4.5
Tegner score: 7.8 ± 1.4
Rerupture: 5
100%
Abdelrazek et al. (2019) [22] I 20 26.6 ± 7.2 Chronic ACL rupture or grade 3 pivot shift Pivot shift: 20
Lachman test: 20
2 years
Pivot shift: 4
Lachman test: 4
Internal tibial rotation angle side-to-side difference: 2.0 ± 1.17
KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference: 1.3 ± 1.3
   
Lee et al. (2019) [29] III/6 45 27.3 ± 7.6 Revision ACL and age up to 45 years Pivot shift: 45
Lachman test: 45
KT-2000 arthrometer: 9.4 ± 1.4
Pivot shift: 20
Lachman test: 5
KT-2000 arthrometer: 2.2 ± 1.4
IKDC score: 67.1 ± 16.4
Lysholm score: 73.2 ± 15.6
Tegner score: 5.2 ± 1.1
IKDC score: 76.7 ± 17.2
Lysholm score: 85.1 ± 18.4
Tegner score: 6.5 ± 0.9
25.6%
  1. LOE level of evidence, NOS Newcastle–Ottawa Scale