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Table 1 Attachment site and length change of the anterolateral ligament

From: The anterolateral ligament of the knee joint: a review of the anatomy, biomechanics, and anterolateral ligament surgery

 Femoral attachmentTibial attachmentLength change
Claes et al. (2013) [6]Prominence of LFE or anterior to LFE21.6 ± 4.0 mm posterior to GT, 23.2 ± 5.7 mm anterior to FH41.5 ± 6.7 mm in 90° of flexion, 38.5 ± 6.1 mm in extension (p < 0.001)
Dodds et al. (2014) [5]4.3 ± 4.9 mm posterior, 8.0 ± 5.2 mm proximal to LFE18 ± 3 mm posterior to GT, 17 ± 3 mm anterior to FHIsometric from 0 to 60° of (1.7 ± 1.1 mm, p = 0.980), shortening of 4.1 ± 0.9 mm (p = 0.011) from 60 to 90°.
Kennedy et al. (2015) [4]Posterior and proximal to LFE with the distance of 7.0 mm (5.6–8.4)24.7 mm posterior to GT, 26.1 mm anterior to FHA continuous increase in length with increasing knee flexion: 41.6 mm in 90° of flexion, 36.8 mm in extension
Zens et al. (2015) [19](none)(none)Continuous increase in length with increasing knee flexion: 10.15% per degree (p < 0.001)
Runer et al. (2016) [16]LFE (45.0%) or just posterior and proximal to LFE (55.0%)18.6 ± 3.8 mm posterior to GT, 15.2 ± 3.9 mm anterior to FHLengthening from 0 to 60° (4.7 ± 2.5 mm, p < 0.001), of shortening of 1.0 ± 1.6 mm (p = 0.015) from 60 to 90°
Dagget et al. (2016) [18]12 (23%): directly to LFE, 30 (58%): slightly proximal and posterior to LFE, 10 (19%): completely proximal and posterior to LFE(none)(none)
Kosy et al. (2016) [34]1: directly to LFE, 6: proximal and posterior to LFE, 3: distal and anterior to LFE17.7 ± 2.95 mm posterior to GT, 12.3 ± 3.55 mm anterior to FH(none)
  1. LFE lateral femoral epicondyle, GT Gerdy’s tubercle, FH fibular head